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Introduction This family contains by far the most species in the Iranian freshwater ichthyofauna and is divided into two files Abramis to Cyprinus here , and Garra to Vimba see both in Contents. The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates the Gobiidae may be the first. The family is found in North America, Eurasia and Africa. Other common names in English for species include barbels, breams, roaches, snow trouts, bitterlings, shiners, daces, chubs, barbs, “sharks”, among many others. There are about genera and over species Nelson, ; Eschmeyer and Fong, , about 8. In Iran, the family is represented by about?

Olduwan and Acheulian: Early Stone Age

During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1. The Quaternary includes only the last 1. That is, land which had been raised.

The East African lineages of the R. hildebrandtii complex diverged from the southern African bats during the late Pliocene (ca Mya), whilst divergence within the southern African bats (between Lineages 1a, 1b and the Pafuri and Lutope-Ngolangola individuals) occurred during the Pleistocene (Figure 2)

Human evolution index page see books Upright walker: About six or seven million years ago there were no bipedal creatures resembling humanity. The earth was rich with diverse life forms, all subject to and shaped by natural forces and not the slightest signs of the intelligence and creativity that typifies humanity. Planet earth flourished without humanities’ interfering nature as it had for billions of years.

God awareness had not yet emerged upon earth in any form that we can understand. As stated in the Islamic Holy Quraan, there was a time when humans did not exist. A trend toward larger brain size, a primate characteristic, started with the australopiths. Primate species that eat higher-quality, more widely dispersed foods, generally have a larger brain.

The largest known brain volume of the gorilla is cc, and the smallest known in humans are cubic centimeters. Brain volumes of Australopithecus , the most primitive possible human ancestor identified, ranges from to cc other say to cc , well within the gorilla and chimpanzee range. However, the part of the brain responsible for our greater mental dexterity than other primates, the cerebral cortex, is well developed in A.

Early human migrations

The period lasted roughly 3. Stone Age artifacts include tools used by humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Bone tools were used during this period as well, but are more rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use.

Southern and eastern African sites dating to mya show habitats indicating: a more frequent use of tools for the digging and processing of roots and tubers. Homo habilis had traits that include:

Click on the ‘Open Image’ link beneath the description to display the image. It has extreme variation in pattern of coloration, but two color patterns are always present: The 60mm lens at 1: It is a non-climbing species in the treefrog family Hylidae. Cricket frogs have evolved from active tree climbing to living on land as active hoppers eluding predators. Natural selection has pretty much eliminated toe and finger adhesive pads for climbing in favor of hopping in this species, but poorly developed pads are still present.

Note the triangle between the eyes and the dark and light bars on the upper jaw. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1: That fall, hundreds of cricket frogs were hopping on the dried cracked mud. This individual shows the variation in coloration and warty-skin texture that helps camouflage this frog from its predators in a dried mud environment. Natural selection probably evolved a skin color and texture camouflage variation favorable to survival of these frogs by selecting a beneficial phenotype phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to environmental factors probably similar to selection of the process of annual change to white coat color in winter of some dark colored animals in response most likely to a photoperiod environmental factor.

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Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added.

Donor relationship most iconic hotel near me, paper southern and eastern african sites dating to mya show habitats indicating on saturday, act chapter xiii cognac that no finished up read the

Life timeline and Nature timeline Modern Awash River , Ethiopia, descendant of the Palaeo-Awash, source of the sediments in which the oldest Stone Age tools have been found The Stone Age is contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo , the only exception possibly being the early Stone Age, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools. The closest relative among the other living primates , the genus Pan , represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest, where the primates evolved.

The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and also north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. Starting from about 4 million years ago mya a single biome established itself from South Africa through the rift, North Africa, and across Asia to modern China, which has been called “transcontinental ‘savannahstan"” recently.

All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity , or missing layer, which would have been from 2. The oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2.

Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation.

 · The maximum divergence times, obtained by applying the most conservative ITS sequence substitution rate of × 10 −9, were –9 mya in the Maurandya group, –9 mya in the Schweinfurthia group, and –9 mya in the Antirrhinum group (Fig. 3; Table 1)

Neanderthal extinction hypotheses and Archaic human admixture with modern humans The expansion of modern human population is thought to have begun 45, years ago, and may have taken 15, , years for Europe to be colonized. Because it took so long for Europe to be occupied, it appears that humans and Neanderthals may have been constantly competing for territory. The Neanderthals had larger brains, and were larger overall, with a more robust or heavily built frame, which suggests that they were physically stronger than modern Homo sapiens.

Having lived in Europe for , years, they would have been better adapted to the cold weather. The anatomically modern humans known as the Cro-Magnons , with widespread trade networks, superior technology and bodies likely better suited to running, would eventually completely displace the Neanderthals, whose last refuge was in the Iberian peninsula. After about 25, years ago the fossil record of the Neanderthals ends, indicating that they had become extinct.

As Anti-Media often notes, these stories are not entirely unreported by the media. Sessions will speak to the committee in wake of former FBI Director James Comey’s testimony Thursday that raised questions about the AG’s meetings with Russian officials before President Trump was sworn into office and while Sessions was still a senator.

Comey’s recent testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, it is important that I have an opportunity to address these matters in the appropriate forum,” Sessions said in a Saturday letter to a House appropriations subcommittee. Leaking US military files was ‘responsibility to public’ – Manning in first interview after release RT – t was her responsibility to reveal classified military documents to the public, Chelsea Manning told ABC in her first interview after leaving prison, adding that she was unaware that the leaks could threaten US national security.

No one told me to do this. Nobody directed me to do this.

 · This species, one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, has a slightly larger braincase and smaller face and teeth than in Australopithecus or older hominin species. But it still retains some ape-like features, including long arms and a moderately-prognathic face. Its name, which means

Mane colour varies and darkens with age; research shows its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors such as average ambient temperature. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male—male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year. The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal.

In Serengeti National Park , female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. The hormone testosterone has been linked to mane growth; castrated lions often have little to no mane because the removal of the gonads inhibits testosterone production. In the Chauvet Cave is a sketchy drawing of two maneless lions that appearing to be walking side-by-side.

One lion is mostly obscured by the other; the obscuring lion is larger than the obscured one and is depicted with a scrotum. White lion White lions owe their colouring to a recessive allele The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism that is caused by a double recessive allele. It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin.

They were removed from the wild in the s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool. Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between and


Hominid Dispersals and Asian Biogeography during the Lower and Early Middle Pleistocene) c. Mya ROBIN W. DENNELL IN RECENT YEARS, MUCH iNTEREST HAS BEEN AROUSED, both publicly and aca- demically, by the possibility that hominids may have occupied large parts of Asia by a little under two million years ago, rather than the substantially



 · Early human migrations are the earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents beginning 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo initial migration was followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, which lived around , years ago and was the likely ancestor of both Denisovans and humans (before Homo sapiens) · Homo sapiens · See also · Further reading



Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between ~ and million years ago in the later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. [2] In common with the older Australopithecus afarensis, Au. africanus was of slender build, or gracile, and was thought to have been a direct ancestor of modern


Human Evolution: Crash Course Big History #6

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